2014-11-01 - 2018-03-31

Project Leader:

Prof. Dr. Nane Kratzke


Peter-Christian Quint


Current cloud computing related research focuses often Service Science related problems and therefore concentrates on aspects how to design, operate and deliver agile cloud based services according to a broad (economical as well as technological) understanding of the service term.

Beside common security, governance and cost forecast concerns, often technological vendor lock-in worries often come along with cloud computing, which is especially true for small and medium-sized enterprises.

But astonishing little research activities focus a technological point of view how to overcome technical vendor lock-in problems in cloud computing.

Therefore, this technological point of view is addressed particularly by this research project.


Current state of the art cloud based software services are often characterized by a highly implicit technological dependency on underlying hosting cloud infrastructures. The project Cloud TRANSIT investigates, how to design cloud based software services to reduce technological dependencies on underlying cloud infrastructures.

By designing and developing a generic cloud service description language, it should be possible to define secure, transferable and elastic services of typical complexity being deployable to any IaaS cloud infrastructure. Furthermore, it should be possible to migrate these services from one private or public cloud infrastructure to another (not necessary compatible) cloud infrastructure.

This kind of transferability reduces cloud infrastructure related technical vendor lock-in problems for small and medium sized enterprises.

Therefore, the project

  • analyzes several common public and private cloud infrastructures,
  • derives requirements for a generic cloud service description language.
  • For cloud services of typical complexity (distributed, load balanced, auto scaling)
  • a prototypic implementation of the description language is implemented
  • and a proof-of-concept is provided.


Lesezeichen Poster: Container- und Cluster-Technologien für Microservices


Poster: Container, Cluster-Technologien für Microservices (DE)

Poster: Projekt Cloud Transit Poster: Projekt Cloud Transit
Poster: Project Cloud Transit Poster: Proposing a Reference Model for Transferable Cloud-Native Applications


Refereed Articles and Book Chapters
[2018] About the Complexity to Transfer Cloud Applications at Runtime and how Container Platforms can Contribute? (Nane Kratzke), Chapter in Cloud Computing and Services Science (revised selected papers) Springer (Markus Helfert, Donald Ferguson, Victor Mendez Munoz, Jorge Cardoso, eds.), 2018. [bib]
[2017] Understanding Cloud-native Applications after 10 Years of Cloud Computing - A Systematic Mapping Study (Nane Kratzke, Peter-Christian Quint), In Journal of Systems and Software Elsevier, volume 126, 2017. [bib] [abstract]
It is common sense that cloud-native applications (CNA) are intentionally designed for the cloud. Although this understanding can be broadly used it does not guide and explain what a cloud-native application exactly is. The term "cloud-native" was used quite frequently in birthday times of cloud computing (2006) which seems somehow obvious nowadays. But the term disappeared almost completely. Suddenly and in the last years the term is used again more and more frequently and shows increasing momentum. This paper summarizes the outcomes of a systematic mapping study analyzing research papers covering "cloud-native" topics, research questions and engineering methodologies. We summarize research focuses and trends dealing with cloud-native application engineering approaches. Furthermore, we provide a definition for the term "cloud-native application" which takes all findings, insights of analyzed publications and already existing and well-defined terminology into account.
[2017] Investigation of Impacts on Network Performance in the Advance of a Microservice Design (Nane Kratzke, Peter-Christian Quint), Chapter in Cloud Computing and Services Science (revised selected papers) Springer (Markus Helfert, Donald Ferguson, Victor Mendez Munoz, Jorge Cardoso, eds.), 2017. [bib]
[2016] Vendor Lock-In im Cloud Computing! Was bringen Container und Container-Cluster? (Peter-Christian Quint), In OBJEKTspektrum, Ausgabe Online Themenspecial Microservices und Docker 2016, 2016. [bib]
[2016] Taming the Complexity of Elasticity, Scalability and Transferability in Cloud Computing - Cloud-Native Applications for SMEs (Peter-Christian Quint, Nane Kratzke), In International Journal on Advances in Networks and Services International Academy, Research, and Industry Association (IARIA), volume 9, 2016. [bib] [abstract]
Cloud computing enables companies getting computational and storage resources on demand. Especially when using features like elasticity and scaling, cloud computing can be a very powerful technology to run, e.g., a webservice without worries about failure by overload or wasting money by paid use of unneeded resources. For using these features, developers can use or implement cloud-native applications (CNA), containerized software running on an elastic platform. Nevertheless, a CNA can be complex at planning, installation and configuration, maintenance and searching for failures. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are mostly limited by their personnel and financial restrictions. So, using these offered services can facilitate a very fast realization of the software project. However, using these (proprietary) services it is often difficult to migrate between cloud vendors. This paper introduces C4S, an open source system for SMEs to deploy and operate their container application with features like elasticity, auto-scaling and load balancing. The system also supports transferability features for migrating containers between different Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platforms. Thus, C4S is a solution for SMEs to use the benefits of cloud computing with IaaS migration features to reduce vendor lock-in.
[2016] Project Cloud TRANSIT - Or to Simplify Cloud-native Application Provisioning for SMEs by Integrating Already Available Container Technologies (Nane Kratzke, Peter-Christian Quint, Derek Palme, Dirk Reimers), Chapter in European Project Space on Smart Systems, Big Data, Future Internet - Towards Serving the Grand Societal Challenges Scitepress (Verena Kantere, Barbara Koch, eds.), 2016. [bib]
[2016] Public Cloud Services an der Fachhochschule Lübeck: Betrachtungen zu wirtschaftlich sinnvollen Einsatzgebieten in Lehre und Forschung (Nane Kratzke, Andreas Hanemann), In Impulse - Aus Forschung und Lehre der FH Lübeck, volume 19, 2016. [bib]
[2015] How to Operate Container Clusters more Efficiently? Some Insights Concerning Containers, Software-Defined-Networks, and their sometimes Counterintuitive Impact on Network Performance (Nane Kratzke, Peter-Christian Quint), In International Journal On Advances in Networks and Services International Academy, Research, and Industry Association (IARIA), volume 8, 2015. [bib]
[2014] CloudTRANSIT - Sichere, plattformunabhängige und transferierbare IT-Services mittles einer generischen Cloud Service Description Language (Nane Kratzke), In ImpulsE - Aus Forschung und Lehre der FH Lübeck, volume 18, 2014. [bib]
[2014] A Lightweight Virtualization Cluster Reference Architecture Derived from Open Source PaaS Platforms (Nane Kratzke), In Open Journal of Mobile Computing and Cloud Computing (MCCC), volume 1, 2014. [bib]
[2014] Lightweight Virtualization Cluster - Howto overcome Cloud Vendor Lock-in (Nane Kratzke), In Journal of Computer and Communication (JCC), volume 2, 2014. [bib]
Refereed Conference Papers
[2018] Towards a Lightweight Multi-Cloud DSL for Elastic and Transferable Cloud-native Applications (Peter-Christian Quint, Nane Kratzke), In Proceedings of the 8th Int. Conf. on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER 2018), 2018. [bib] [abstract]
Cloud-native applications are intentionally designed for the cloud in order to leverage cloud platform features like horizontal scaling and elasticity – benefits coming along with cloud platforms. In addition to classical (and very often static) multi-tier deployment scenarios, cloud-native applications are typically operated on much more complex but elastic infrastructures. Furthermore, there is a trend to use elastic container platforms like Kubernetes, Docker Swarm or Apache Mesos. However, especially multi-cloud use cases are astonishingly complex to handle. In consequence, cloud-native applications are prone to vendor lock-in. Very often TOSCA- based approaches are used to tackle this aspect. But, these application topology defining approaches are limited in supporting multi-cloud adaption of a cloud-native application at runtime. In this paper, we analyzed several approaches to define cloud-native applications being multi-cloud transferable at runtime. We have not found an approach that fully satisfies all of our requirements. Therefore we introduce a solution proposal that separates elastic platform definition from cloud application definition. We present first considerations for a domain specific language for application definition and demonstrate evaluation results on the platform level showing that a cloud-native application can be transferred between different cloud service providers like Azure and Google within minutes and without downtime. The evaluation covers public and private cloud service infrastructures provided by Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Compute Engine and OpenStack.
[2018] About an Immune System Understanding for Cloud-native Applications - Biology Inspired Thoughts to Immunize the Cloud Forensic Trail (Nane Kratzke), In Proc. of the 9th Int. Conf. on Cloud Computing, GRIDS, and Virtualization (CLOUD COMPUTING 2018, Barcelona, Spain), 2018. [bib]
[2018] About being the Tortoise or the Hare? A Position Paper on Making Cloud Applications too Fast and Furious for Attackers (Nane Kratzke), In Proc. of the 8th Int. Conf. on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER 2018, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal), 2018. [bib]
[2017] Towards a Description of Elastic Cloud-native Applications for Transferable Multi-Cloud-Deployments (Peter-Christian Quint, Nane Kratzke), In Proceedings of the 1st Int. Forum on Microservices (Microservices 2017, Odense, Denmark), 2017. [bib]
[2017] Smuggling Multi-Cloud Support into Cloud-native Applications using Elastic Container Platforms (Nane Kratzke), In Proceedings of the 7th Int. Conf. on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER 2017), 2017. [bib]
[2016] Overcome Vendor Lock-In by Integrating Already Available Container Technologies - Towards Transferability in Cloud Computing for SMEs (Peter-Christian Quint, Nane Kratzke), In Proceedings of CLOUD COMPUTING 2016 (7th. International Conference on Cloud Computing, GRIDS and Virtualization), 2016. [bib]
[2016] ppbench - A Visualizing Network Benchmark for Microservices (Nane Kratzke, Peter-Christian Quint), In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER 2016), 2016. [bib] [abstract]
Companies like Netflix, Google, Amazon, Twitter successfully exemplified elastic and scalable microservicearchitectures for very large systems. Microservice architectures are often realized in a way to deploy servicesas containers on container clusters. Containerized microservices often use lightweight and REST-based mech-anisms. However, this lightweight communication is often routed by container clusters through heavyweightsoftware defined networks (SDN). Services are often implemented in different programming languages addingadditional complexity to a system, which might end in decreased performance. Astonishingly it is quite com-plex to figure out these impacts in the upfront of a microservice design process due to missing and specializedbenchmarks. This contribution proposes a benchmark intentionally designed for this microservice setting. Weadvocate that it is more useful to reflect fundamental design decisions and their performance impacts in theupfront of a microservice architecture development and not in the aftermath. We present some findings regard-ing performance impacts of some TIOBE TOP 50 programming languages (Go, Java, Ruby, Dart), containers(Docker as type representative) and SDN solutions (Weave as type representative).
[2015] About Microservices, Containers and their Underestimated Impact on Network Performance (Nane Kratzke), In Proceedings of CLOUD COMPUTING 2015 (6th. International Conference on Cloud Computing, GRIDS and Virtualization), 2015. [bib]
Refereed Workshop Papers
[2016] ClouNS - A Reference Model for Cloud-Native Applications (Nane Kratzke, Rene Peinl), In Proceedings of 20th. International Conference on Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Workshops (EDOCW 2016), 2016. [bib]
Other Publications
[2018] Preliminary Technical Report of Project CloudTRANSIT - Transfer Cloud-native Applications at Runtime (Nane Kratzke, Peter-Christian Quint), Technical report, The Center of Excellence CoSA, Lübeck University of Applied Sciences, 2018. [bib]
[2017] 80% der Cloud-Dienste sind nicht standardisiert (Nane Kratzke, Thomas Hafen), Interview Neue Mediengesellschaft Ulm mbH, volume 5, 2017. [bib]
[2017] Analyse und Integration von Storage-Clustern in elastische Container Plattformen (Thomas Finnern), Master's thesis, Luebeck University of Applied Sciences, 2017. [bib]
[2016] Evaluation einer Cloudspeicher-Loesung bei einem Telekommunikationsunternehmen (Thomas Finnern), Technical report, Fachhochschule Lübeck, 2016. [bib] [pdf]
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